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Hazardous Substances in e-Waste

Electrical and electronic equipment contain different hazardous materials which are harmful to human health and the environment if not disposed of carefully. While some naturally occurring substances are harmless in nature, their use in the manufacture of electronic equipment often results in compounds which are hazardous (e.g. chromium becomes chromium VI). The following list gives a selection of the mostly found toxic substances in e-waste.



Substance Occurrence in e-waste
Halogenated compounds:
- PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) Condensers, Transformers
- TBBA (tetrabromo-bisphenol-A)
- PBB (polybrominated biphenyls)
- PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)
Fire retardants for plastics (thermoplastic components, cable insulation)
TBBA is presently the most widely used flame retardant in printed wiring boards and casings.
- Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Cooling unit, Insulation foam
- PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Cable insulation
Heavy metals and other metals:
- Arsenic Small quantities in the form of gallium arsenide within light emitting diodes
- Barium Getters in CRT
- Beryllium Power supply boxes which contain silicon controlled rectifiers and x-ray lenses
- Cadmium Rechargeable NiCd-batteries, fluorescent layer (CRT screens), printer inks and toners, photocopying-machines (printer drums)
- Chromium VI Data tapes, floppy-disks
- Lead CRT screens, batteries, printed wiring boards
- Lithium Li-batteries
- Mercury Fluorescent lamps that provide backlighting in LCDs, in some alkaline batteries and mercury wetted switches
- Nickel Rechargeable NiCd-batteries or NiMH-batteries, electron gun in CRT
- Rare Earth elements (Yttrium, Europium) Fluorescent layer (CRT-screen)
- Selenium Older photocopying-machines (photo drums)
- Zinc sulphide Interior of CRT screens, mixed with rare earth metals
Others:
- Toner Dust Toner cartridges for laser printers / copiers
Radio-active substances
- Americium
Medical equipment, fire detectors, active sensing element in smoke detectors


Arsenic
Arsenic is a poisonous metallic element which is present in dust and soluble substances. Chronic exposure to arsenic can lead to various diseases of the skin and decrease nerve conduction velocity. Chronic exposure to arsenic can also cause lung cancer and can often be fatal.

Barium
Barium is a metallic element that is used in sparkplugs, fluorescent lamps and "getters" in vacuum tubes. Being highly unstable in the pure form, it forms poisonous oxides when in contact with air. Short-term exposure to barium could lead to brain swelling, muscle weakness, damage to the heart, liver and spleen. Animal studies reveal increased blood pressure and changes in the heart from ingesting barium over a long period of time. The long-term effects of chronic barium exposure to human beings are still not known due to lack of data on the effects.

Beryllium
Beryllium has recently been classified as a human carcinogen because exposure to it can cause lung cancer. The primary health concern is inhalation of beryllium dust, fume or mist. Workers who are constantly exposed to beryllium, even in small amounts, and who become sensitised to it can develop what is known as Chronic Beryllium Disease (beryllicosis), a disease which primarily affects the lungs. Exposure to beryllium also causes a form of skin disease that is characterised by poor wound healing and wart-like bumps. Studies have shown that people can still develop beryllium diseases even many years following the last exposure.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs)
The 3 main types of BFRS used in electronic and electrical appliances are Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and Tetrabromobisphenol - A (TBBPA). Flame retardants make materials, especially plastics and textiles, more flame resistant. They have been found in indoor dust and air through migration and evaporation from plastics. Combustion of halogenated case material and printed wiring boards at lower temperatures releases toxic emissions including dioxins which can lead to severe hormonal disorders. Major electronic manufacturers have begun to phase out brominated flame retardants because of their toxicity.

Cadmium
Cadmium components may have serious impacts on the kidneys. Cadmium is adsorbed through respiration but is also taken up with food. Due to the long half-life in the body, cadmium can easily be accumulated in amounts that cause symptoms of poisoning. Cadmium shows a danger of cumulative effects in the environment due to its acute and chronic toxicity. Acute exposure to cadmium fumes causes flu-like symptoms of weakness, fever, headache, chills, sweating and muscular pain. The primary health risks of long term exposure are lung cancer and kidney damage. Cadmium also is believed to cause pulmonary emphysema and bone disease (osteomalacia and osteoporosis). For more information on go to: http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/chemical/cadmium/ehc135.htm

CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)
Chlorofluorocarbons are compounds composed of carbon, fluorine, chlorine, and sometimes hydrogen. Used mainly in cooling units and insulation foam, they have been phased out because when released into the atmosphere, they accumulate in the stratosphere and have a deleterious effect on the ozone layer. This results in increased incidence of skin cancer in humans and in genetic damage in many organisms. For more information go to http://www.c-f-c.com/supportdocs/cfcs.htm

Chromium
Chromium and its oxides are widely used because of their high condctivity and anti corrosive properties. While some forms of chromium are non toxic, Chromium (VI) is easily absorbed in the human body and can produce various toxic effects within cells. Most chromium (VI) compounds are irritating to eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Chronic exposure to chromium (VI) compounds can cause permanent eye injury, unless properly treated. Chromium VI may also cause DNA damage. For more information, go to http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/chemical/chromium/ehc61.htm

Dioxins Dioxins and furans are a family of chemicals comprising 75 different types of dioxin compounds and 135 related compounds known as furans. Dioxins is taken to mean the family of compounds comprising polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins have never been intentionally manufactured, but form as unwanted by-products in the manufacture of substances like some pesticides as well as during combustion. Dioxins are known to be highly toxic to animals and humans because they bio-accumulate in the body and can lead to malformations of the foetus, decreased reproduction and growth rates and cause impairment of the immune system among other things. The best-known and most toxic dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For further information go to http://www.deh.gov.au/industry/chemicals/dioxins/pubs/incinfinal.pdf

Lead
Lead is the fifth most widely used metal after iron, aluminium, copper and zinc. It is commonly used in the electrical and electronics industry in solder, lead-acid batteries, electronic components, cable sheathing, in the glass of CRTs etc. Short-term exposure to high levels of lead can cause vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, coma or even death. Other symptoms are appetite loss, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, sleeplessness, irritability and headache. Continued excessive exposure, as in an industrial setting, can affect the kidneys. It is particularly dangerous for young children because it can damage nervous connections and cause blood and brain disorders. For more information go to http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/iyh/environment/lead.html and http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/chemical/lead/ukpid25.htm.

Mercury
Mercury is one of the most toxic yet widely used metals in the production of electrical and electronic applications. It is a toxic heavy metal that bioaccumulates causing brain and liver damage if ingested or inhaled. In electronics and electrical appliances, mercury is highly concentrated in batteries, some switches and thermostats, and fluorescent lamps. For more information go to http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/chemical/mercury/cie322.htm

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds use in a variety of applications, including dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, heat transfer fluids and as additives in adhesives and plastics. PCBs have been shown to cause cancer in animals. PCBs have also been shown to cause a number of serious non-cancer health effects in animals, including effects on the immune system, reproductive system, nervous system, endocrine system and other health effects. PCBs are persistent contaminants in the environment. Due to the high lipid solubility and slow metabolism rate of these chemicals, PCBs accumulate in the fat-rich tissues of almost all organisms (bioaccumulation). The use of PCBs is prohibited in OECD countries, however, due to its wide use in the past, it still can be found in waste electrical and electronic equipment as well as in some other wastes.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the most widely-used plastic, used in everyday electronics and appliances, household items, pipes, upholstrery etc. PVC is hazardous because contains up to 56 percent chlorine which when burned produces large quantities of hydrogen chloride gas, which combines with water to form hydrochloric acid and is dangerous because when inhaled, leads to respiratory problems.

Selenium
Exposure to high concentrations of selenium compounds cause selenosis. The major signs of selenosis are hair loss, nail brittleness, and neurological abnormalities (such as numbness and other odd sensations in the extremities).

Source: Information collated from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html
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