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Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation, sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants

TitleHuman exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation, sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsAsante KA, Adu-Kumi S, Nakahiro K, Takahashi S, Isobe T, Sudaryanto A, Devanathan G, Clarke E, Ansa-Asare OD, Dapaah-Siakwan S, Tanabe S
Journal TitleEnvironment International
Volume37
Pages921 - 928
ISSN0160-4120
KeywordsGhana
AbstractHuman exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was evaluated in Ghana using breast milk samples collected in 2004 and 2009. Mean levels and ranges of PBDEs (4.5; 0.86–18 ng/g lw) and PCBs (62; 15–160 ng/g lw) observed in the present study were unexpectedly high, in spite of the fact that Ghana is a non-industrialized country when compared with many of the Asian and European countries. Significant increases were found in the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs over the years, while no significant increase was observed for HBCDs. Estimated hazard quotient (HQ) showed that all the mothers had HQ values exceeding the threshold of 1 for PCBs, indicating potential health risk for their children. PCBs in dirty oils and obsolete equipment should be of concern as potential sources in Ghana, and e-waste recycling with little or no experience in safe handling could be a threat to this sub-region noted for unregulated disposal of e-waste. The results may point towards an increase in trends in human milk in Ghana, especially in the larger cities but further analysis would be required to confirm this upward trend in levels. This is the first study to report BFRs in human breast milk from Africa, and undoubtedly from Ghana.
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V7X-52JDVD9-4/2/c92ade43d395ef69051b4f2e953a24bb
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.03.011
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