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Halogenated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an electronic waste recycling region in South China: Levels, composition profiles, and human dietary exposure assessment

TitleHalogenated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an electronic waste recycling region in South China: Levels, composition profiles, and human dietary exposure assessment
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsZheng X-B, Wu J-P, Luo X-J, Zeng Y-H, She Y-Z, Mai B-X
Journal TitleEnvironment International
Volume45
Pages122 - 128
ISSN0160-4120
KeywordsHuman dietary exposure
AbstractThree regulated halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and several alternative HFRs (AHFRs) including Dechlorane Plus (DP), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), were investigated in the home-produced eggs from three recycling sites and a reference site in an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling region, South China. Mean levels of HFRs in eggs from the recycling sites ranged 2640–14 100, 700–1620, 44–350, and 720–3920 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PBDEs, ∑PBBs, ∑HBCDs, and ∑AHFRs, respectively, which were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those examined in the reference site. PBDEs were the predominant HFR in those eggs, with contributions > 50% to the total HFRs; followed by PBBs and the AHFRs (contributing 14–22% in average). The α-HBCD was the predominant diastereoisomers of HBCDs, with preferential enrichment of the (−)-enantiomer in most of the eggs; but no significant stereoselective enrichment of the DP isomers was observed in these eggs. The average estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PBDEs, PBBs, HBCDs, and the AHFRs via eggs from the recycling sites ranged 4200–20 000, 1120–2440, 80–490, and 970–4530 ng/day, respectively, which were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported from other parts of the world. The potential adverse effects of these HFRs to human health in the e-waste sites should be further investigated. This is the first report on the isomer compositions of DP and the chiral signatures of HBCDs in hen eggs.
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412012000785
DOI10.1016/j.envint.2012.04.006
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